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G29 - Automatic Bed Leveling

1.0.0-beta calibration Probe the bed and enable leveling compensation. AUTO_BED_LEVELING_(3POINT|LINEAR|BILINEAR)

ABL probes the bed at 3 or more points and enables bed leveling compensation. The exact procedure and method depends on the type of bed leveling chosen in Configuration.h:

  • AUTO_BED_LEVELING_3POINT probes 3 points and uses a matrix to compensate for bed tilt.
  • AUTO_BED_LEVELING_LINEAR also uses a tilt matrix but probes a grid and applies “least-squares.”
  • AUTO_BED_LEVELING_BILINEAR probes a grid and produces a mesh to adjust Z across the bed.

The printer must be homed with G28 before G29.


Automatic Probing

With an electronic probe Marlin can probe the entire bed in a matter of seconds —even before every print— with a single G29 command. Available parameters depend on the style of leveling. See parameter descriptions and examples below for details.


Manual Probing

Auto Bed Leveling now includes a PROBE_MANUALLY option for systems lacking a probe.

PROBE_MANUALLY adds these parameters to G29:

  • Q : Query leveling and G29 state
  • A : Abort current leveling procedure

To do manual probing simply repeat G29 until the procedure is complete.

The first G29 accepts the same parameters , shown in the Usage section below. The exact parameters available will depend on which style of bed leveling is enabled. (Note: UBL parameters are not covered on this page unless they coincide. See the G29 for UBL page for a full list of its options.)

Before probing the bed:

  1. Use G29 Q to get the current status. If G29 isn’t idle, abort with G29 A.
  2. Use M420 V to view leveling data. You can send M420 S1 to use the existing data.

To probe the bed using GCode:

  1. Use G29 to move to the first point for Z adjustment.
  2. Adjust Z so a piece of paper can just pass under the nozzle.
  3. Use G29 to save the Z value and move to the next point.
  4. Repeat steps 3-4 until completed.
  5. Use M500 to save the leveling data to EEPROM, if desired.

To probe the bed using your LCD controller: (Requires LCD_BED_LEVELING)

  1. Select the Level Bed sub-menu, then choose Level Bed (not Cancel).
  2. Wait for Homing XYZ to complete.
  3. When Click to Begin appears, press the controller button to move to the first point.
  4. Use the controller wheel to adjust Z so that a piece of paper can just pass under the nozzle.
  5. Press the controller button to save the Z value and move to the next point.
  6. Repeat steps 4-5 until completed.
  7. Use Control > Store memory to save the mesh to EEPROM, if desired.

Mesh Editing

AUTO_BED_LEVELING_BILINEAR adds these parameters to G29 for editing mesh points:

  • W Write a mesh point. (Ignored during leveling.)
  • I X index for mesh point
  • J Y index for mesh point
  • X logical X of mesh point
  • Y logical Y of mesh point
  • Z Z to store in mesh. If omitted, current raw Z.

Usage

G29 [A<bool>] [B<linear>] [C<bool>] [D<bool>] [E<bool>] [F<linear>] [J<bool>] [L<linear>] [P<int>] [Q<bool>] [R<linear>] [S<rate>] [T<bool>] [V<0|1|2|3|4>] [W<bool>] [X<int/float>] [Y<int/float>] [Z<float>]

Argument Description
[A<bool>]

Abort leveling procedure in-progress (PROBE_MANUALLY)

[B<linear>]

Set the back limit of the probing grid (AUTO_BED_LEVELING_LINEAR, AUTO_BED_LEVELING_BILINEAR)

[C<bool>]

Create a fake grid for testing. (DEBUG_LEVELING_FEATURE)

[D<bool>]

Dry-Run mode. Just probe the grid but don’t update the bed leveling data

[E<bool>]
  • By default G29 will engage the Z probe, test the bed, then disengage.
  • Include “E” to engage/disengage the Z probe for each sample.
  • There’s no extra effect if you have a fixed Z probe. (without PROBE_MANUALLY)
[F<linear>]

Set the front limit of the probing grid (AUTO_BED_LEVELING_LINEAR, AUTO_BED_LEVELING_BILINEAR)

[J<bool>]

Jettison the leveling data stored in SRAM and turn off leveling compensation. Data in EEPROM is not affected.

[L<linear>]

Set the left limit of the probing grid (AUTO_BED_LEVELING_LINEAR, AUTO_BED_LEVELING_BILINEAR)

[P<int>]

Set the size of the square grid that will be probed - P x P points (AUTO_BED_LEVELING_LINEAR)

[Q<bool>]

Query the current leveling state (PROBE_MANUALLY, DEBUG_LEVELING_FEATURE)

[R<linear>]

Set the right limit of the probing grid (AUTO_BED_LEVELING_LINEAR, AUTO_BED_LEVELING_BILINEAR)

[S<rate>]

Set the XY travel speed between probe points (AUTO_BED_LEVELING_LINEAR, AUTO_BED_LEVELING_BILINEAR)

[T<bool>]

Generate a Bed Topology Report (AUTO_BED_LEVELING_LINEAR)

[V<0|1|2|3|4>]

Set the verbose level

  • V2:

    Level 2 and up act like ‘T’

[W<bool>]

Write a mesh Z offset (PROBE_MANUALLY). W requires X, Y, and Z.

[X<int/float>]
  • Override the X-size of the grid that will be probed (AUTO_BED_LEVELING_LINEAR).
  • Specify X when setting a mesh value (PROBE_MANUALLY).
[Y<int/float>]
  • Override the Y-size of the grid that will be probed (AUTO_BED_LEVELING_LINEAR).
  • Specify Y when setting a mesh value (PROBE_MANUALLY).
[Z<float>]

Specify the Z offset when setting a mesh value (PROBE_MANUALLY).

Notes

Any arguments left out of G29 will use the default values set in Configuration.h.

Examples

Automatic Probing examples

G29 ; execute ABL

G29 is most commonly used without any arguments. This uses the defaults set in Configuration.h.

G29 P5 ; 5x5 matrix

Probe a 5x5 matrix. (AUTO_BED_LEVELING_LINEAR)

G29 X4 Y8 L50 R150 F50 B150 T V4

Probe a 4x8 matrix from X50 Y50 to X150 Y150, printing a full report. (AUTO_BED_LEVELING_LINEAR, AUTO_BED_LEVELING_BILINEAR)

Manual Probing example

G29 V1 ;  Ready!  Go to Point 1, wait...
G29 V1 ; Store Z, go to Point 2, wait...
G29 V1 ; Store Z, go to Point 3, wait...
G29 V1 ; Store Z, go to Point 4, wait...
G29 V1 ; Store Z, go to Point 5, wait...
G29 V1 ; Store Z, go to Point 6, wait...
G29 V1 ; Store Z, go to Point 7, wait...
G29 V1 ; Store Z, go to Point 8, wait...
G29 V1 ; Store Z, go to Point 9, wait...
G29 V1 ; Store Z. Calculate matrix. Activate.

Each G29 command goes to the next step until the whole procedure is done. The V1 parameter provides a progress report.